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Version: v2.x


The CSRF middleware for Fiber provides protection against Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) attacks. Requests made using methods other than those defined as 'safe' by RFC9110#section-9.2.1 (GET, HEAD, OPTIONS, and TRACE) are validated using tokens. If a potential attack is detected, the middleware will return a default 403 Forbidden error.

This middleware offers two Token Validation Patterns: the Double Submit Cookie Pattern (default), and the Synchronizer Token Pattern (with Session).

As a Defense In Depth measure, this middleware performs Referer Checking for HTTPS requests.

Token Generation

CSRF tokens are generated on 'safe' requests and when the existing token has expired or hasn't been set yet. If SingleUseToken is true, a new token is generated after each use. Retrieve the CSRF token using c.Locals(contextKey), where contextKey is defined within the configuration.

Security Considerations

This middleware is designed to protect against CSRF attacks but does not protect against other attack vectors, such as XSS. It should be used in combination with other security measures.


Never use 'safe' methods to mutate data, for example, never use a GET request to modify a resource. This middleware will not protect against CSRF attacks on 'safe' methods.

Token Validation Patterns

By default, the middleware generates and stores tokens using the fiber.Storage interface. These tokens are not linked to any particular user session, and they are validated using the Double Submit Cookie pattern. The token is stored in a cookie, and then sent as a header on requests. The middleware compares the cookie value with the header value to validate the token. This is a secure pattern that does not require a user session.

When the authorization status changes, the previously issued token MUST be deleted, and a new one generated. See Token Lifecycle Deleting Tokens for more information.


When using this pattern, it's important to set the CookieSameSite option to Lax or Strict and ensure that the Extractor is not CsrfFromCookie, and KeyLookup is not cookie:<name>.


When using this pattern, this middleware uses our Storage package to support various databases through a single interface. The default configuration for Storage saves data to memory. See Custom Storage/Database for customizing the storage.

Synchronizer Token Pattern (with Session)

When using this middleware with a user session, the middleware can be configured to store the token within the session. This method is recommended when using a user session, as it is generally more secure than the Double Submit Cookie Pattern.

When using this pattern it's important to regenerate the session when the authorization status changes, this will also delete the token. See: Token Lifecycle for more information.


Pre-sessions are required and will be created automatically if not present. Use a session value to indicate authentication instead of relying on presence of a session.

Defense In Depth

When using this middleware, it's recommended to serve your pages over HTTPS, set the CookieSecure option to true, and set the CookieSameSite option to Lax or Strict. This ensures that the cookie is only sent over HTTPS and not on requests from external sites.


Cookie prefixes __Host- and __Secure- can be used to further secure the cookie. Note that these prefixes are not supported by all browsers and there are other limitations. See MDN#Set-Cookie#cookie_prefixes for more information.

To use these prefixes, set the CookieName option to __Host-csrf_ or __Secure-csrf_.

Referer Checking

For HTTPS requests, this middleware performs strict referer checking. Even if a subdomain can set or modify cookies on your domain, it can't force a user to post to your application since that request won't come from your own exact domain.


When HTTPS requests are protected by CSRF, referer checking is always carried out.

The Referer header is automatically included in requests by all modern browsers, including those made using the JS Fetch API. However, if you're making use of this middleware with a custom client, it's important to ensure that the client sends a valid Referer header.

Token Lifecycle

Tokens are valid until they expire or until they are deleted. By default, tokens are valid for 1 hour, and each subsequent request extends the expiration by 1 hour. The token only expires if the user doesn't make a request for the duration of the expiration time.

Token Reuse

By default, tokens may be used multiple times. If you want to delete the token after it has been used, you can set the SingleUseToken option to true. This will delete the token after it has been used, and a new token will be generated on the next request.


Using SingleUseToken comes with usability trade-offs and is not enabled by default. For example, it can interfere with the user experience if the user has multiple tabs open or uses the back button.

Deleting Tokens

When the authorization status changes, the CSRF token MUST be deleted, and a new one generated. This can be done by calling handler.DeleteToken(c).

if handler, ok := app.AcquireCtx(ctx).Locals(csrf.ConfigDefault.HandlerContextKey).(*CSRFHandler); ok {
if err := handler.DeleteToken(app.AcquireCtx(ctx)); err != nil {
// handle error

If you are using this middleware with the fiber session middleware, then you can simply call session.Destroy(), session.Regenerate(), or session.Reset() to delete session and the token stored therein.


It's important to note that the token is sent as a header on every request. If you include the token in a page that is vulnerable to BREACH, an attacker may be able to extract the token. To mitigate this, ensure your pages are served over HTTPS, disable HTTP compression, and implement rate limiting for requests.


func New(config ...Config) fiber.Handler


Import the middleware package that is part of the Fiber web framework:

import (

After initializing your Fiber app, you can use the following code to initialize the middleware:

// Initialize default config

// Or extend your config for customization
KeyLookup: "header:X-Csrf-Token",
CookieName: "csrf_",
CookieSameSite: "Lax",
Expiration: 1 * time.Hour,
KeyGenerator: utils.UUIDv4,


Nextfunc(*fiber.Ctx) boolNext defines a function to skip this middleware when returned true.nil
KeyLookupstringKeyLookup is a string in the form of "<source>:<key>" that is used to create an Extractor that extracts the token from the request. Possible values: "header:<name>", "query:<name>", "param:<name>", "form:<name>", "cookie:<name>". Ignored if an Extractor is explicitly set."header:X-Csrf-Token"
CookieNamestringName of the csrf cookie. This cookie will store the csrf key."csrf_"
CookieDomainstringDomain of the CSRF cookie.""
CookiePathstringPath of the CSRF cookie.""
CookieSecureboolIndicates if the CSRF cookie is secure.false
CookieHTTPOnlyboolIndicates if the CSRF cookie is HTTP-only.false
CookieSameSitestringValue of SameSite cookie."Lax"
CookieSessionOnlyboolDecides whether the cookie should last for only the browser session. Ignores Expiration if set to true.false
Expirationtime.DurationExpiration is the duration before the CSRF token will expire.1 * time.Hour
SingleUseTokenboolSingleUseToken indicates if the CSRF token be destroyed and a new one generated on each use. (See TokenLifecycle)false
Storagefiber.StorageStore is used to store the state of the middleware.nil
Session*session.StoreSession is used to store the state of the middleware. Overrides Storage if set.nil
SessionKeystringSessionKey is the key used to store the token within the session."fiber.csrf.token"
ContextKeyinteface{}Context key to store the generated CSRF token into the context. If left empty, the token will not be stored within the context.""
KeyGeneratorfunc() stringKeyGenerator creates a new CSRF token.utils.UUID
CookieExpirestime.Duration (Deprecated)Deprecated: Please use Expiration.0
Cookie*fiber.Cookie (Deprecated)Deprecated: Please use Cookie* related fields.nil
TokenLookupstring (Deprecated)Deprecated: Please use KeyLookup.""
ErrorHandlerfiber.ErrorHandlerErrorHandler is executed when an error is returned from fiber.Handler.DefaultErrorHandler
Extractorfunc(*fiber.Ctx) (string, error)Extractor returns the CSRF token. If set, this will be used in place of an Extractor based on KeyLookup.Extractor based on KeyLookup
HandlerContextKeyinterface{}HandlerContextKey is used to store the CSRF Handler into context."fiber.csrf.handler"

Default Config

var ConfigDefault = Config{
KeyLookup: "header:" + HeaderName,
CookieName: "csrf_",
CookieSameSite: "Lax",
Expiration: 1 * time.Hour,
KeyGenerator: utils.UUIDv4,
ErrorHandler: defaultErrorHandler,
Extractor: CsrfFromHeader(HeaderName),
SessionKey: "fiber.csrf.token",
HandlerContextKey: "fiber.csrf.handler",

It's recommended to use this middleware with fiber/middleware/session to store the CSRF token within the session. This is generally more secure than the default configuration.

var ConfigDefault = Config{
KeyLookup: "header:" + HeaderName,
CookieName: "__Host-csrf_",
CookieSameSite: "Lax",
CookieSecure: true,
CookieSessionOnly: true,
CookieHTTPOnly: true,
Expiration: 1 * time.Hour,
KeyGenerator: utils.UUIDv4,
ErrorHandler: defaultErrorHandler,
Extractor: CsrfFromHeader(HeaderName),
Session: session.Store,
SessionKey: "fiber.csrf.token",
HandlerContextKey: "fiber.csrf.handler",


const (
HeaderName = "X-Csrf-Token"

Sentinel Errors

The CSRF middleware utilizes a set of sentinel errors to handle various scenarios and communicate errors effectively. These can be used within a custom error handler to handle errors returned by the middleware.

Errors Returned to Error Handler

  • ErrTokenNotFound: Indicates that the CSRF token was not found.
  • ErrTokenInvalid: Indicates that the CSRF token is invalid.
  • ErrNoReferer: Indicates that the referer was not supplied.
  • ErrBadReferer: Indicates that the referer is invalid.

If you use the default error handler, the client will receive a 403 Forbidden error without any additional information.

Custom Error Handler

You can use a custom error handler to handle errors returned by the CSRF middleware. The error handler is executed when an error is returned from the middleware. The error handler is passed the error returned from the middleware and the fiber.Ctx.

Example, returning a JSON response for API requests and rendering an error page for other requests:

ErrorHandler: func(c *fiber.Ctx, err error) error {
accepts := c.Accepts("html", "json")
path := c.Path()
if accepts == "json" || strings.HasPrefix(path, "/api/") {
return c.Status(fiber.StatusForbidden).JSON(fiber.Map{
"error": "Forbidden",
return c.Status(fiber.StatusForbidden).Render("error", fiber.Map{
"Title": "Forbidden",
"Status": fiber.StatusForbidden,
}, "layouts/main")

Custom Storage/Database

You can use any storage from our storage package.

storage := sqlite3.New() // From
Storage: storage,